By: Victor Normand
I have been thinking a lot about the White House lately and thought I should write a blog about it, so here it is. George Washington never lived there, the only President (the title he chose for himself over king), who did not, though the responsibility for its creation fell to him completely. Once the Constitution was adopted in 1788 and the first election of a leader was completed, it seems most of the Founding Fathers vacated the scene. As expected, and hoped for, George Washington won the election with all 69 of the electoral votes cast. He had done great things for the new country, and was about to add first time home buyer for the nation to his list of accomplishments. The task of finding the right location in the right part of the country and building a suitable home for its leader fell to him.
In 1789, no country on earth was ruled by someone who was term limited and George Washington was determined that the United States of America was to be the first. And that was not the only egalitarian distinction he was going to bring to his new charge. While he felt strongly that the President should reside in a substantial residence, he rejected city planner L’Enfant’s vision for a grand elaborate palace and settled on a house one third as large, yet grand for its time in America. Bigger homes would not be built until after the Civil War during the Gilded Age.
Capital cities in Europe were recognized for the wealth and commerce they attracted so it was not surprising that New York and Philadelphia, Americas two largest cities, competed for the chance to become the nation’s capital and home to the President, but Washington felt that it was important to locate the seat of government and the “Executive Mansion” in a more central location. He signed legislation in 1790, designating land not more than 10 miles square along the Potomac River at the Maryland/Virginia border to be the Federal City. Washington personally selected the “practical and handsome” design by James Hoban from among nine competing submissions. The cornerstone was laid in October of 1792 and Washington was present to oversee the construction of the house. He would not live to see his vision realized when the house was completed in 1800.
The White House is 185 feet long, 85 feet wide with two basements and four stories above grade for a total of 55,000 square feet of living area. It has had its share of challenges requiring upgrades including being set afire by the British in 1814, a major house fire during the Hoover administration in 1929, and near structural failure when Truman was President. The nation has never failed to respond to the needs of the White House, which only became the White House in 1901 when Theodore Roosevelt began using the nickname on his engraved stationary.
The White House cost about $3 million in today’s dollars. It was a great expense for the new nation, but Washington knew how important it was to show confidence to the world that our democracy would endure. No matter what your politics are, it is hard not to be anxious these days, but we can take some comfort in the permanence and beauty of this old house.